Uzbek Rugs

Guide to Uzbek Rugs & Carpets

Background / History
The Uzbek split from the Mongol Golden Horde that conquered Russia in the thirteenth century. When Genghis Khan died in 1227 his empire was divided up in the great Quraltai of 1229. Jochi the eldest son was given the land furthest from the hearth, but since he had died his heirs led by Berke took from the Caucasus north into Russia and they were known as the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde or Kipchaks were led by Batu and Berke. Their younger brother Shayban, who gained acclaim in the Mongolian invasion of Hungary" split off and established the Shaybanid Horde. The distinctive nature of the Uzbek was their conversion to Islam earlier than the bulk of the Golden Horde. This gave the Uzbek a point of distinction that seperated them from other Mongols.

The next major event in Uzbek history was when Uzbek Khan converted to Islam and led the Shaybanid horde to Islam as well. The distinctive nature of the Uzbek was their conversion to Islam earlier than the bulk of the Golden Horde. This gave the Uzbek a point of distinction that seperated them from other Mongols. This caused the Shaybanid to also be called Uzbek and over time Uzbek supplanted the older name. In the later part of the 15th century the Shaybanid Horde moved into Transoxiana (Turkestan also called Turan which is today Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.) By 1505 the Uzbeks usurped the Chagati Turks or Timurid leadership and took the land much of which they still inhabit today.

As the Uzbek took control of Turkestan, northern Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and parts of Khorasan this did not mean that the indigenous people of the area left or were killed. Many of the subjugated peoples of that area primarily Sart and Turkic were absorbed into the Uzbek. Other peoples such as the Turkmen kept their ethno-linguistic identity.

Linguistically Uzbek is a Turkic language. Uzbek is linguistically close to Turkmen (Eastern Azeri). For political purposes Russian scholars worked to accentuate the differences to divide the Turkic peoples for the Soviet political purposes. Uzbeks weave both pile and flatweaves. Much of Uzbek rug production I feel is incorrectly labeled as Turkmen rugs. We see that in many rugs that prior to 1990 would have been cataloged at auction as Ersari, Afghan, or Turkmen which are not labeled Uxbek.

Examples:

Uzbek Abr (Ikat) Silk Cover
Uzbek Abr (Ikat) Silk Cover

Uzbek Abr (Ikat) Silk Cover

Uzbek Cover 4 foot 7 inch by 7 foot.

Here we have a quilt like cover of Abr silk and cotton. Abr silk or as some people call it Ikat is resist dyed silk. Abr is Persian for "cloud like" whereas Ikat is the Indonesian term for a similar cloth. For hundreds of years at least to the time of Cingissi Qahan silk robes were given to honored guests by rulers in Southwest Asia. From the time of its introduction in the 18th century Abr was quickly recognized as the ultimate fabric in a land where fabric was money. With the great value placed on Abr when a garment is too far gone to use the Abr is treasured and used for other uses such as this.

Uzbek Abr Silk Cover, Bokhara,

Late 19th early 20th Century. 6 foot 1 inch by 3 foot 11inch.

Structure: Abr resist dyed silk and cotton.

Further Notes: Excellent Condition.

One of my weaknesses is that I collect Hazara rugs and textiles. Most people do not know what they looks like and even fewer collect them. Of the people who do collect them they usually think they are Uzbek. I recently located a collection with 3 Hazara pieces. The collector agreed to sell them only as part of a collection and consequently I had to acquire 24 other pieces to get the three I wanted. The price was reasonable and when I started going through the mostly silk items I was amazed. The pieces like this one are in excellent condition with vivid colors and great design. I agreed not to use the collectors name but let me say it is very much what the wife of a high ranking Foreign Service Officer might collect over the years in Southwest Asia.


Antique Uzbek Okbash
Antique Uzbek Okbash

Antique Uzbek Okbash

This is an Uzbek Okbash. As a general rule Turkmen make pile Okbash and Okbash and Kirghiz make felt Okbash. George Washington O'Bannon in "Tribal and Village Rugs from Arizona Collections" mentions that one group of Uzbek makes pile Okbash. I feel firmly that this piece is Uzbek so It stands to reason that it must be from the group that O'Bannon mentions.

Pieces such as this represent what the Uzbek wove for themselves, and gives us the best possible glimpse of what the people of Central Asia actually wove for themselves. Most rugs were woven for market but bags like this are truly an authentic piece of ethnographic folk-art.

Uzbek Okbash Bag, Northern Afghanistan, Circa 1900. 1 foot 4 inches by 1 foot 10 inches. (Not including tassels)

Structure: Asymmetric knot open right. 7 knots per horizontal inch and 9 knots per vertical inch. 61 per square inch (945 per square decimeter) Not depressed.

Yarn Spin: Z.

Warp: 2 ply wool tan.

Weft: 2 ply wool, brown.

Selvage: 2 cord wrapped in brown wool.

Ends: Okbash with tassels.

Further Notes: Antique piece is in excellent condition. The tassels appear to be horse hair.

What is an Okbash?

The conventional wisdom is that bags such as this were used to act as an end cap to a bundle of tent poles or struts when they were carried in migration. It is not inconceivable that they had a place as a dowry item and were used in a marriage related ceremony. It is important to remember that Uzbeks and Turkmen may live together but are separate and distinct people with different language, heritage and customs. All too often we use Turkmen words to describe Turkmen things and we base too much about the Uzbek from what we see from the Turkmen.


Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890
Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890

Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890
Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890
Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890
Uzbek Piled Tent Band C. 1890

Description

Uzbek (piled) Tent Band Central Asia, circa 1890, measuring 28 feet X 10 - 12 inches. This is an amazing example of Uzbek pile weaving. Such strips were woven as ceremonial bands for the traditional yurt or tent dwelling of the tribal Uzbek people.

They were also cut up and sewn together to make small rugs for the same tents. Here we see a multitude of atypical and very graphic design motifs. The condition is very good with virtually a full pile and woven with very lustrous wool. The colors are all natural even though the piece itself was woven in a later period where synthetic dyestuffs were commonly used among many of the Central Asian tribes.

There is a comparable example of this type of weaving illustrated in George O'Bannon's edition of the Moshkova book on Central Asia. This is a rare opportunity for me to represent a wonderful example of ethnic Uzbek weaving of the rarest type.

I guarantee you that it is virtually impossible to find such things ANYWHERE in the world today. The colors are well saturated and the field is a pleasant strong red, a rarity to see in todays world. There are browns and greens, corrosive, as well as great blues. The tent band has long been at the very top of the list of tribal artifacts to collect and this is a world class example of Uzbek tent band.


Uzbek Rug 19th century
Uzbek Rug 19th century

Uzbek Rug 19th century

Title: Uzbek Rug

Tribal Uzbekistan

Size: 4' x 7'4" (approximately)

Date; 19th Century

Description

In the literature, rugs of the Uzbek are among the least known. This piece is new to the market and was sourced in the region of the Bukhara Oblasts of Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, rugs were woven mainly for home use by non-settled, semi-nomadic tribal people. This rug is one piece, short pile floor rug or gilam. It does not have the color or dye problems that plague many Uzbek weavings. The colors are strong. The dyes appear to be natural. There are no dye runs.

Condition: Fair. There is loss to the ends and sides. There are areas of low pile.


Pair of Uzbek Okbash
Pair of Uzbek Okbash

Pair of Uzbek Okbash

Okbash. Tent pole covers. Woolen embroidery on woolen felt. Horsehair tassels. A Pair.


Early 20th century Uzbek Warp-patterned Cover
Early 20th century Uzbek Warp-patterned Cover

Early 20th century Uzbek Warp-patterned Cover

Uzbek Warp-patterned Cover

Uzbekistan. Early 20th century.

Wool.  5'1"x 7'10"

An old technique used for making intricate tent bands appears here in a cover or rug. One long band with subtly varying side-by-side blue and green figured stripes was woven, then it was cut into 6 sections that were sewed together. The handsome piece is in excellent condition, with one small reweave.


Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan
Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan

Turkestan Chyrpy, probably Uzbek, Turkestan

Circa late 19th - early 20th century

3 ft. 5 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.

Height: approximately 3 ft. 5 in.

Generally good overall condition apart from some small areas of minor color bleed.

Note: Compare the long false sleeves to the sleeves of the King in "Big Head" Fariburz and Kay Khusrau dated 1494. The tradition of long false sleeves is very old in Central Asia.


Uzbek Silk and Cotton Ikat Woman's Robe (Mumisak)
Uzbek Silk and Cotton Ikat Woman's Robe (Mumisak)

AN UZBEK SILK AND COTTON IKAT WOMAN'S ROBE (MUNISAK),

MEASUREMENTS

Robe: approximately 132cm. 4ft. 4in. long; hanging: approximately 227 by 145cm., 7ft. 5in. by 4ft. 9in.

DESCRIPTION

Third quarter 19th century

together with a silk and cotton ikat wall hanging, probably Ferghana Valley, third quarter 19th century, woven with an overall design of carmine and rose pink pointed palmettes, supported by blue-green bifurcating leaves, on an ivory ground


The Wertime Uzbek Segusha 19th century
The Wertime Uzbek Segusha 19th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Date of Origin 19th century

Use: Bed decoration

Description:

Lakai Uzbek Segusha

Region: Central Asia Uzbekistan

Item Type: Textiles Costume and Apparel

Period / Date: 19th century (1800 - 1899)

Materials: felted broad cloth with silk embroidery

Condition: Very Good

Full Description: High quality silk, excellent drawing of the cloud collar motif, and excellent color including green and yellow


Uzbek Chapan late 19th century
Uzbek Chapan late 19th century

Uzbek Chapan late 19th century
Uzbek Chapan late 19th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Date of Origin late 19th century

Use: saddle bag

Description:

Ikat Chapan

Size: 120cm (H) x 158cm (W) / 3'11"(H) x 5'2"(W)

Region: Central Asia Uzbekistan

Item Type: Textiles Costume and Apparel Chapan

Period / Date: 19th century late (1867 - 1899)

Materials: silk

Structure / Technique: ikat

Condition: Excellent

Full Description: Variegated colors green/copper brown. Russian printed cotton lining.


Uzbek Giliam early 20th century
Uzbek Giliam early 20th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Description: Uzbek Giliam

Origin: Central Asia, Uzbekistan,

Early 20th c.

Size: ca. 198 x 125 cm

Sides overcast. Good pile with some repairs.


Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug
Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug

Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug
Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug
Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug
Rare Ensi style Uzbek Rug

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Origin: Central Asia, Uzbekistan

Width: 5'9'' (181 cm)

Length: 8'3'' (254 cm)

Weft: Wool

Warp: Wool

Description:

This is a rare weaving from Central Asia. The Central part of the rug is lower in pile than the rest of it. There have been 5 or 6 examples up to now in the market place. It has asymmetric knots open to the right.


Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850
Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850

Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850
Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850
Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850
Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850
Rare Uzbek Short Pile Rug Date 1800 - 1850

Uzbekistan

Size Fragment (1'11" x 9'10")

Mounted on dark blue backing

Date 1800 - 1850

Description: This fragment is a rare Uzbek short pile rug. Uzbek weavings of this type and age traditionally consist of two or more strips woven on a narrow-beam loom and then sewn together. The surviving portions of this rug appear to be the two middle strips of a four section rug in the runner format. Unlike so many later Uzbek weavings this piece has all natural dye. The colors are rich. There are no dye runs of any kind.

Condition: This piece is a fragment. There are low areas and three holes. Otherwise, the existing pile is in good condition, particularly for a carpet of this age.


The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century
The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century

The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century
The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century
The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century
The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century
The Langauer Uzbek Kilim Early 20th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Date of Origin mid-19th century

Description:

Uzbek Kilim

14cm (L) / 6'6"(W) x 13'7"(L)

Region: Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbek

Item Type: Rugs and Carpets Flatweaves Kilim

Period / Date: 20th century first quarter (1900 - 1924)

Condition: Excellent

Comments On Condition: Very good condition. No signs of wear. Only two minor old repairs, hard to find.


Uzbek Giliam early 20th century
Uzbek Giliam early 20th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Description: Uzbek Giliam

Origin: Central Asia, Uzbekistan,

Early 20th c.

Size: ca. 276 x 163 cm

Pile worn in places, otherwise in good condition. Dirty.


Uzbek Kilim 19th century
Uzbek Kilim 19th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Uzbek Kelim, Central Asia, 19th century, (slight embroidery losses), 5 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.


Uzbek Saddle Fragment
Uzbek Saddle Fragment

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Uzbek Saddle Fragment

Origin: Central Asia, Uzbekistan

Width: 2'3'' (71 cm)

Length: 1'3'' (41 cm)

Weft: Wool

Warp: Wool


Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century
Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century

Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century
Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century
Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century
Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century

Country of Origin: Uzbekistan

Uzbek Rug, Central Asia, late 19th century, 3' 4"x 5' 7"

An archaic composition with an overall eye dazzling pattern of great interest. Framed by an equally simple and appropriately archaic compartmented border with each compartment containing an eight pointed star. The field pattern can be read in more than one way, with the interlocking design formed in the reciprocal space between what is apparently the primary pattern contained in boxes (see the third detail photo of the field, below). The colors are apparently all derived from natural dyes and the condition is immaculate with virtually full pile, and no repairs.

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