Southwest Asia Time Line
Southwest Asia Time Line 1500 to Now1500
The Shaybanid Uzbeks capture Samarkand under Muhammad Shaybani Khan (1451-1510), thus taking over Turan (Transoxiana) from the Timurids. - (W. 3)
Early 16th century Early 16th century saw the beginning of decline in trade in overland Persian/Turkish routes. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 189. - (W. 4)
"In the early sixteenth century, the Turkmen "were concentrated in four main regions: along the southeastern coast of the Caspian Sea, on the Mangyshlak Peninsula (on the northeastern Caspian coast), around the Balkan Mountains, and along the Uzboy River running across north-central Turkmenistan". Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
"Many scholars regard the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries as the period of the reformulation of the Turkmen into the tribal groups that exist today. " Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
"Beginning in the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century, large tribal conglomerates and individual groups migrated east and southeast." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
"Beginning in the sixteenth century, most of the Turkmen tribes were divided among two Uzbek principalities: the Khanate (or amirate) of Khiva (centered along the lower Amu Darya in Khorazm) and the Khanate of Bukhoro (Bukhara)." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
"Uzbek khans and princes of both khanates customarily enlisted Turkmen military support in their intra- and inter-Khanate struggles and in campaigns against the Persians. Consequently, many Turkmen tribes migrated closer to the urban centers of the khanates, which came to depend heavily upon the Turkmen for their military forces." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
(16th century) "The Yomut split into eastern and western groups, while the Teke moved into the Akhal region along the Kopetdag Mountains and gradually into the Murgap River basin. The Salor tribes migrated into the region near the Amu Darya delta in the oasis of Khorazm south of the Aral Sea, the middle course of the Amu Darya southeast of the Aral Sea, the Akhal oasis north of present-day Ashgabat and areas along the Kopetdag bordering Iran, and the Murgap River in present-day southeast Turkmenistan." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
1501-07 The Timurid/Shaybanid War - The last Timurid Princes including Babur, Badi'Uzman Mirza and Soltan Hosayn Mirza Bayqara wage a doomed effort to hold their ancestral lands in Turan against the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani Khan. Grousset, Empire. Page 464 - 465.. - (W. 5)
1502 The Golden Horde collapses and is absorbed into the Crimean Tatar Khanate. - (W. 3)
Ismail Safavi establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia. - (W. 3)
Ismail Safavi declares twelver form of Shiaism as the official state religion of Persia. Wagstaff Landscapes, Page 205.
1504 Babur becomes King in Kabul. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 39.
1506 The Shaybanid Uzbeks capture Bukhara.
1507 The Shaybanid Uzbeks drive Badi'Uzman Mirza out of Herat, bringing to an end the Timurid dynasty. Grousset, Empire. Page 465.
The Portuguese under Afonso de Albuquerque seized Ormuz starting 150 years of Portuguese involvement in Oman.
Babur observed that Bihzad painted "extremely delicately" but did not paint beardless faces well but that he did well with bearded faces.
May - June 1507 Babur also observed that Shaybanid Uzbek Wormwood Khan (Muhammad Shaybani Khan) after taking Herat behaved so badly that he took a pen and corrected the painting of Bihzad. About May - June 1507.Baburnama quatrain 181
1508 The Safavids defeats the Aq Qoyunlu and cement their hold on Azerbaijan.
1510 Battle of Merv. The remaining Timurid Princes ally with the Safavid Persians under Ismail Safavi and defeat the Shaybanid Horde at Merv. Muhammad Shaybani Khan is killed. Defeat results in Khorasan including Herat up to the Firoz Kohi ridge going to the Safavid Persians and Central Asia in particular Samarkand and Bukhara going to the Uzbeks.
1511 Badi'Uzman Mirza goes to Istanbul with the Ottoman army after their occupation of Tabriz.
1512 Salim (the Grim) I 1512-1520, Sultan of Turkey.
1514 1514 Battle of Chaldiran. The Ottoman Turks defeated the Shah Ismail and the Safavi army through the use of artillery. This battle established a period of overwhelming Military superiority for the Ottoman over the Safavi. This gave the Ottoman the control of the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia which gave the Ottoman a naturally defensible eastern border. At this point Salim closed the border to the Persian silk trade which was Persia's main source of foreign exchange. Kinross Ottoman Centuries. Page 167
Soudavar suggests that Badi'Uzman Mirza was at the court of Ismail Safavi in 1514 and then went to the court of Salim I where he died shortly afterwards. Soudavar, APC. Page 122 note 24.
Circa 1515 New Trade Partners after Chaldiran. After Chaldiran Persia focused more on China and India as trading partners. Kinross, Ottoman Centuries. Page 229 - 230
1517 The Ottomans seize Egypt defeating the Mamluks.
1520 Suleiman1520 -1566, becomes the Ottoman Sultan.
1520 (circa) Plate 42: The Sleep of Rustam Circa 1520
Prince Drinking Wine. Herat Circa 1520
1522 Shah Tahmasp returned to Tabriz from Herat in 1522. Soudavar, APC. Page 164
Babur seizes Kandahar.
Ottoman Sultan Sulaiman conquers the Island of Rhodes.
1524 Shah Tahmasp (r. 1524-1576),succeeds his father Ismail Safavi as Shah of Persia.
1526 Babur defeats Ibrahim Lodhi at Panipat and captures Delhi and founds an empire that we know as the Moghul Empire. His battlefield success was attributable to use of cannon and matchlock combined with mounted archery charges against larger armies who lacked firearms. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 41.
At Kanua Babur crushes the Rajputs by the use of cannon and matchlock combined with mounted archery charges. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 41.
Babur then dies and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
1530 (circa) Plate 62: Portrait of the Prince
Two Safavid Princes or A self-portrait?
Plate 63: Portrait of a Prince
Youth and Old Age Tabriz circa 1530
Margin illustrations from the "Golestan of Sa'di" attributed to a Persian Artist Aqa Mirak. Circa 1530
The Jewel-tree, circa 1530 from Shah Tahmasp's Shahnama, Tabriz, c.1530
1533 The unusual multi peaked hat draped with cloth seen in early Mughal paintings was introduced by Humayun in 1533. Blair and Bloom Pp. 287.
Ivan IV, "The Terrible" (r. 1533-1584). Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1534 Grand Vizier Ibrahim enters Tabriz the Safavid capital in the summer of 1534. In October Sulaiman The Magnificent joins the army under Ibrahim and jointly they take Baghdad. In 1535 they sacked Tabriz and headed home. Tabriz was occupied by the Ottoman from 1534 to 1536. Reid, Tribalism and Society. Page 115.
1534 Hosayn Khan-e Shamlu attempted to overthrow Shah Tahmasp and put his brother Sam Mirza on the throne of Persia with the help and connivance of the Ottoman Turks. Soudavar, APC. Page 154.
1536 - 1537 Nizami's Khamsa was produced 1536 - 1537 Blair and Bloom Pp. 170.
Bihzad died 1536-37 Blair and Bloom Pp. 63.
1539 Sher Khan Lodi defeated Humayun at Chausa
1540 Sher Khan Lodi defeated Humayun at Kanauj
Sher Khan Lodi takes the throne of Delhi and the name Sher Shah.
1543-44 Soltan Ibrahim Mirza son of Prince Bahram born. Welch and Welch Islamic Book.. page 100
1544 Humayun crossed over into Safavid Persia and gain the backing of Shah Tahmasp Safavi Shahinshah of Persia after converting to Shia Islam.
1545-53 Humayun entered the Mughal empire with an army. This started a 8 year war that finally resulted in Humayan entering Kabul as undisputed leader in 1553. At this point Humayun had his brother Kamran blinded and the court of Kamran was gone forever. Humayun ruled until his death in 1556.
1549 In 1549 Duust Mohammad traveled to t he court of Kamran king of Kabul. Welch, Wonders of the Age. Page 194.
1550 Shamse, Kabul, Circa 1550
Prince Bahram dies. Welch and Welch Islamic Book.. page 96
1552 Ivan the Terrible brings the Kazan Khanate under Russian control.
"Muscovite conquest of Kazan (1552)" Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1554 Akbar absorbs Gujarat in 1554. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 35.
1555 Tahmasp moves Capitol to Qazvin 1555 Blair and Bloom Pp. 165
1555 Treaty of Amasiye makes peace between Ottoman and Safavids. Soudavar, APC. Page 164.
Pastoral Scene Shiraz circa 1550 - 1560
In 1555 Humayun recovered the throne of Delhi from Sher Khan Lodi.
1556 Ivan the Terrible seizes Astrakhan and wrests Astrakhan from Ottoman Turkish control.
1557 Abdullah Khan II (1533-98) - last and greatest Shaybanid ruler in Bukhara. Abdullah Khan II gained control of the Shaybanid Ulus with the backing of the Sufi Shaykh Kwaja Sa'd al-Din Juybari. Blair and Bloom Pp. 201.
A group of Uzbeks Khans stopped in Mashad on their way to Shah Tahmasp's court in Qazvin. There was apparently a good bit of travel and exchange.
Picture of an Uzbek Khan in Mashad Plate 64: The Officer's Portrait
1560 (circa) A youth talking with a man. Shiraz Circa 1560
Iskandar and Nushabeh. Shiraz Circa 1560
1562 1562 - Exiled French Prince Jean Philippe Bourbon de Navarre and his Armenian wife Juliana found the first Armenian Church in India in 1562 at Agra. Reinhart Timeline
1562 - 1577 The Master Spy Escapes c. 1562 - 1577
1564 First Known painting by Abdullah . Simpson, Haft Awrang Page 304.
1565 (circa) Plate 57: Portrait of a Young Woman
Rustem meeting Kay Qubad Shiraz, 1560-70
1565 In 1565 Akbar had a small fort built by the Sultan of Delhi Iskandar Lodi knocked down and a larger fort and the town of Akbarabad was built. Agra was the sometime Mughal capitol after that point. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 71 - 72.
1566 Selim II 1566-1574, becomes Sultan of the Ottoman empire.1566 Sulaiman The Magnificent dies and Salim II succeeds him.
1566 Sulaiman The Magnificent dies and Selim II succeeds him. In 1567 Shah Tahmasp sent a delegation with treasure including the Welch/Dickson Shahnameh. Soudavar, APC. Page 164.
1567 In 1567 Shah Tahmasp gives his Great Shahnama to Selim II 1567. Blair and Bloom Pp. 168. This is the same Shahnama as the Welch/Dickson Shahnameh.
1570 (circa) Plate 67: The Lovers
Portrait of a Seated Flautist.
The Prophet Elias Rescuing Nur ad-Dahr from the Sea, From the Hamza-nama ascribed to Mir Sayyid Ali, circa 1570
1571 Akbar begins a Mosque and Imperial palace at Fatehpur Sikri. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 103
The Crimean Tatars conducted the last raid on Moscow in 1571. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1574 Ivan IV enthroned Simeon Bekbulatovich a Chinggisid "Tsar" in Moscow in 1574. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1574 Murad III succeds Selim II
1575 (circa) Fete Champetre Shiraz circa 1575
1576 Akbar defeated the Rajputs at Haldighat.
Soltan Ibrahim Mirza is murdered at the order of his cousin Shah Ismail II.
1580 (circa) The Williams Medallion and Animal Carpet Fragment
Elephants, Rhinoceroses, and Camels
Isfandiyar Hunting Lions" By Miskin, From The Shahnama of Firdausi. Northern India, 1580 - 1585
Fighting Elephants Fatehpur Sikri
1583 Plate 70: Ustad Abdollah
1585 (circa) Solomon Enthroned, Shiraz, circa 1580 -1590
"Two Fighting Camels" by Abd as-Samad. Mughal India, circa 1585.
Farruhk Beg was a Mongol artist who was with artists who had been in the atelier of Ibrahim Mirza in Khorasan until 1585. He spent 1585 to 1600 at the atelier of Akbar.
Autumn 1585 Akbar leaves Fatehpur Sikri not to return. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 105
1586 1586 Akbar returns from Punjab campaign but makes the northern city of Lahore his capitol.. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 105
1587 Sadiqi Beg named head of Shah Abbas's library. Welch and Welch Islamic Book.. page 100
Farrokh Beg went to the Mughal court late in 1587. Simpson, Haft Awrang Page 123 Note 9.
1588 Abdullah Khan II Uzbek Khan took Herat, Sabzavar, Isfarain, Tebes, and Mashad holding them until 1597.Grousset, Empire. Page 485.. or 1598.Soudavar, plate 217.
1590 The Ottoman defeat the Safavids in a 12 year war a 12 year war which resulted in Persia ceding Georgia, Azerbaijan, Shirvan Tabriz, and other provinces to Sulaiman Sultan of the Ottoman.
The Widener Mughal Animal Carpet Lahore circa 1590, National Gallery of Art.
"Buffaloes In Combat" by Miskin. Circa 1590 - 1595, Metropolitan Museum Of Art.
"The Raven Addresses the Assembled Animals" by Miskin. Circa 1590. British Museum, London.
"Painters And Calligraphers Working" an illustration from Ahklaq-i-Nasiri, Lahore Circa 1590
1593 (circa) The Salting Carpet - Uzbek Herat
In the late 16th century Ottoman Sultans began to unseat and replace Crimean Tatar khans who were a problem and the name of the Ottoman sultan was read at the Friday prayer. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
The Turkmen Prisoner- 1590 - 1600 Signed by Farrukh Beg.
1595 Muhammad III 1595-1603 becomes Sultan of Turkey.
Plate 72 Animals in Combat (Khorasan c1595)
1598 Baqi Muhammad Bahadur, Khan 1598-1605 establishes the Astrakhanid dynasty in the Khanate of Bukhara.
Akbar moves his capitol south to Agra. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 103
Abbas Safavi defeats Abdullah Khan II near Herat and fees Khorasan from the Uzbeks. Grousset, Empire. Page 485..
1600 (circa) Encampment with Camels Herat circa 1600
The Berlin Spiral Tendril Carpet, Mughal India Circa 1600
Armenians of New Julfa had the silk monopoly under Shah Abbas I. Blair and Bloom Pp. 176.
Farruhk Beg spent 1585 to 1600 at the atelier of Akbar. Farruhk Beg was downsized in 1600 in the same design shift in which Miskin fell out of favor. He was in the Deccan until 1608
In 1600 Europe still received 60 percent of it's pepper and 50 percent of it's other spices and medicine through the Levant. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 198.
Abbas Safavi creates a slave army of Caucasians and Armenians This allows him to offset the power of the Kizilbash tribes. Wagstaff Landscapes, Page 205.
1605 Page from The Bustan of Sa'di by Abdorrahim al-Heravi, Agra (India), 1605
1605 - Shah Abbas moves Armenians from Armenia to New Julfa and destroys what he can of Armenia to thwart the advancing a Ottoman Army. Reinhart Timeline
1608 Farruhk Beg returns from the Deccan to the Mughal court.
1628 Shah Jahan (r. 1628 AD - 1658 AD) succeeds his father Jahangir as Mughal Padishah.
1630 (circa) The Textile Museum Mughal Fighting Elephant Fragment Lahore India, circa 1630
1630 1630 the Kalmuqs drive the Turkmen out of Mangyshlak . Krader, Central Asia. Page 84.
1632 Fighting Elephants Lahore Fort
1634 The Girdlers' Carpet, Lahore 1634
Construction was begun for the Red Fort at Shahjahanabad in 1638. (Tillotson Mughal India. Page 55)
1649 Treaty of Zuhab the Ottoman empire surrendered the Transcaucasus to the Safavids who controlled it until the Afghan invasion (1722). At this point Chukhur - eSa'd became the Khanate of Erevan. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 3.
1648 Red Fort at Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi) ready for occupancy. Tillotson Mughal India. Page 55
mid 17th century In the mid 17th century the Crimean Khan entered into a treaty with Poland against Muscovy. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
Mid 17th century desiccated pastures and Kalmuk incursions push the Ersari and Salor out of the Mangyshlak peninsula. Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam. ( this is substantially later than 1530 that Krader, Central Asia. Page 84 reports.)
1672 With the acquisition of Crete in 1672 and Podolia in 1672 the Ottoman empire ceased to expand and began a gradual path of collapse and decay. Wagstaff Landscapes, Page 198.
1680 Turkmen and Trukhmens split in 1680 with the Trukhmens moving into the North Caucasus. Krader, Central Asia. Page 58.
late seventeenth century "Historical sources indicate the existence of a large tribal union often referred to as the Salor confederation in the Mangyshlak Peninsula and areas around the Balkan Mountains. The Salor were one of the few original Oghuz tribes to survive to modern times. In the late seventeenth century, the union dissolved and the three senior tribes moved eastward and later southward." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
Afghan invasion of Persia (1722). Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 3.
18th and 19th
centuries In the 18th and 19th centuries the Turkmen gained power as the Persians lost power in the region. Krader, Central Asia. Page 97.
1718 First Russian expedition to Khiva is massacred in Khiva. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 18.
1722 Treaty between the Karakalpaks and Emperor Peter the Great in 1722. Almanach de Bruxelles Karakalpak, Uzbekistan
1724 Peter the Great invades the Eastern Transcaucasus. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 4.
Ottoman Turkey invades the Western Transcaucasus. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 4.
1736 Nadir Shah Afshari 1736 - 1747 becomes Shah of Iran and takes back the Transcaucasus. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 4.
1739 1739 Russians build fortress at Orenburg to control the Kazakh hordes. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 18.
1739 1739 Nadir Shah sacks Delhi at the head of 16,000 Pathans. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 69. I think Pathan might be inaccurate since I think the army drew mostly Afshar (Afghan Kizilbash) and Western Pashtuns. JBOC
1743 "The height of Turkmen influence in the affairs of their sedentary neighbors came in the eighteenth century, when on several occasions (1743, 1767-70), the Yomut invaded and controlled Khorazm" Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
1750 Erevan and Ganja become tributaries of the Kingdom of Georgia under king Erekle II 1747 - 17989. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 7.
1757 The Qing defeated the Mongol Jungars in 1757 and extended the Chinese empire to Lake Balkash. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
Catherine II r. 1762-1796married to Peter (Peter III) Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1767 The Yomut captured Khiva in 1767. Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
1768 The Teke and Salor were separate and the Khan of Khiva addressed the Teke before the Salor
Firdaws al-iqbal pg. 102
1770 "In 1770 Muhammad Amin Inaq, the chief of Qongrats, defeated the Yomuts and established his authority in the Khanate.He became the founder of a new Qongrat dynasty of Khivan rulers." Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
1771 "In 1771, the Qing dynasty unsuccessfully sought to bring the khan of the Kazakh Great Horde into a vassal relationship to the emperor." Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
1773 Russo-Ottoman war of 1773- 74 ended by treaty of Kucuk Kaynarja in 1774. The Crimean Khanate was freed from Ottoman rule. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
"In 1773 Catherine had instructed the Holy Synod to issue a "toleration of All Faiths" edict." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1783 Kingdom of Georgia becomes a Czarist Protectorate under Treaty of Georgieevsk. Russian troops enter Georgia. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 7.
1787 - 1792 Russo-Turkish War 1887 - 1792.
1796 Agha Mohammad Khan captures the former Safavid Possessions in the Transcaucasus and conducts a massacre and takes slaves in Tiflis. The becomes the first Qajar Shah of Persia. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 7.
1796 Katherine The Great seizes Derbend, Qubah, and Baqu in 1796. Gammer. Shamil and Chechnia .
1797 - 1834 Qajar Shah Fath Ali Shah 1797 - 1834. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page xxiv - xxv.
1801 Czar Alexander annexes Georgia. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 32.
Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 32 Note 3
1805 Czarist Russia annexes Kazak, Shams od din, and Borchalu in 1805. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 32 Note 3
1810 The Teke (Tekke) under Muhammad Niyaz Tarkhan "pulled his neck out of the collar of submission to his royal majesty". In other words the Teke grouped at Merv and rejected the authority of the Khan of Khiva. Firdaws Al-iqbal pg. 328
1811 In 1811, the Karakalpaks become vassals of the Khans of Khiva and Kungrad. Almanach de Bruxelles Karakalpak, Uzbekistan
The Teke Sariq and Salor lived in the regions of Tezhen, Murghab, and Sarakhs and the Teke in Akhal and Merv as well.
Firdaws al-iqbal pg. 383
1812 Citing Ousley population of Erevan was 13 - 14,00 - in 1812. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 49 - W. 4
1813 The Teke fought for the Khan of Khiva against the Persian Kizilbash. Firdaws al-iqbal pg. 413
1818 The Salor, Sariq, and Ersari gave obedience and submission to the Emir of Bukkhara
Firdaws al-iqbal pg. 458
1819 In 1819 the Turkmen between the Caspian and Khiva were under the control of Persia. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 84. - W. 3
1820s In the 1820s Chodor lived in Narazym, Lebap province, Turkmenistan.
Firdaws al-iqbal pg. 516
1828 Erevan was the last territory seized by the Czarist Russians in the Transcaucasus in 1828. Bounoutian, Khanate of Erevan. Page 47. - W. 4
1820 to 1828 Aqtaghlik rebellion1820 to 1828 led by Jahangir who was trying to free Altishahr as the Tarim Basin was then known. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
1828 Persia agreed by treaty that Armenians were free to return to Armenia now that it was in Czarist hands. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 112. - W. 4
1830 - 1859 First Russo/Chechen war. Gammer. Shamil and Chechnia and Daghestan - W. 5
1833 In 1833 there was a section of Kabul known as he "Armenian Quarter". Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 169.
1834 - 1846 "Between 1834 and 1846, Perovsky had pushed Russian outposts down the east coast of the Caspian Sea to Fort Novo-Aleksandrovskoe on Komsomolets Bay". Hinson, Steppe of Central Asia
1842 The Emir of Bukhara executes two British spies and agent provocateurs Col. Stoddart's and Col. Connolly. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game. Page 1. - W. 4
1848 Hamze Mirza besieged Mashad in 1848.
1855-6 "After the Crimean War (1855-6), the Russian empire sought to expel, and indeed induced by force, large numbers of Tatars from Crimea, on the ground that the Tatars sided with the invading allied forces. Hundreds of thousands migrated to the Ottoman domains, to Dobruja, located West of the Black Sea. Portions of the emigrants went directly to Istanbul." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
The Tekke defeated the Khan of Khiva at Sarahks in 1855. This allowed the Tekke to occupy the Sarahks region. It also set off 12 years of Turkmen rebellion against the Khiva Khanate. Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
"From 1855 to 1867, a series of Yomut rebellions again shook the area. These hostilities and the punitive raids by Uzbek rulers resulted in the wide dispersal of the eastern Yomut group." Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
1858 Majority of Turkmen subjugated by 1858 Spuler, Bertold. The Mongols in History. Page 123 - W. 3
1834 - 1846 "Between 1834 and 1846, Perovsky had pushed Russian outposts down the east coast of the Caspian Sea to Fort Novo-Aleksandrovskoe on Komsomolets Bay". Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
Final Turkmen left the Mangyshlak peninsula except for a small number of Chodor who remain to this day. Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The Encyclopaedia of Islam. ( this is substantially later than 1530 that Krader, Central Asia. Page 84 reports.)
1869 "(A)n 1869 expedition from Port Perovsk (Makhachkala) crossed the Caspian Sea and established outposts at Krasnovodsk and Chikishlar. From the former, reconnaissance missions were sent into the Turcomen lands to the east." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
1869, the Russians had built a fortress on the Caspian Sea at Krasnovodsk (Turkmen-Bashi).Ogata Resource Treasure-trove
"(A)n 1869 expedition from Port Perovsk (Makhachkala) crossed the Caspian Sea and established outposts at Krasnovodsk and Chikishlar. From the former, reconnaissance missions were sent into the Turcomen lands to the east." Hinson, Steppe of Central Asia
Afghanistan: Sher Ali Khan receives the British at Ambala 1869
Afghanistan: 6th Earl of Mayo with Sher Ali Khan at Ambala 1869
1871 - 1872 "East of Khiva, the Kyzyl Kum north of Bokhara was surveyed and explored by small detachments during 1871 and 1872. Similar missions were performed by troops from Orenburg between Emba and the Aral Sea." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
"A military offensive against Khiva was launched in the spring of 1873 from several directions, under the governor-general von Kaufman. Khiva was captured in 29 may and the khan, Sayid Muhammad Rahim II, surrender." Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
"A peace treaty signed on 12 August 1873 established the status of the Khanate as a Russian protectorate. The Khan declared himself the "obedient servant" of the Russian emperor, and all territories of the Khanate on the right bank of the Amu Darya River were annexed to Russia. The subjugation of the Khanate had little effect on the internal affairs of the country , in which Russia interfered only in order to put down several Turkmen " Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
"On May 8, 1873 the Orenburg Column marched into the city of Kungrad, the most important settlement in the northern part of the khanate. Muhammad Rahim's forces had abandoned the town only hours before." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
1873 - "The armed forces of Khiva were in such a state of antiquity that the most effective fighting force fielded by the khanate were the semi-nomadic Yomut Turcomen, who were vassals to Muhammad Rahim." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
1873 - When General Kauffman approached Khiva Muhammad Rahim had fled to the Yomut Turcomen. Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
"A peace treaty was finally signed on August 12, 1873. Blocked by his government from annexing the khanate, Kaufman managed to force the Khan to cede all of his lands north of the Amu Darya to the conquerors. Furthermore, the Russians obtained the right of residence, the right to trade tax-free in Khiva, and an indemnity of 202 million rubles to be paid over a twenty year period." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
"On July 7, Major General Golovachev was sent into Yomut territory, located west of Khiva, with eight infantry companies, eight sotnias of Cossacks, a battery each of guns and rockets, and two mitrailleuses which had been dragged to Khiva by the Tashkent Column. The savagery with which the Yomut Turcomen were punished over the next two weeks came from the Governor-General himself. In his orders to Golovachev, Kaufman stated that the general was to give over the Yomut settlements, and their families, to complete destruction. If the soldiery met any resistance at all, the troops were to "exterminate" the opposition. The resulting slaughter spared neither age nor sex as the Russians, and especially the Cossacks, "rushed about like madmen"." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
Late 1873 "Short of money for the return to Tashkent, Kaufman ordered the other Turcomen tribes in Khivan territory to pay their shares of the fine, some 301,000 rubles. Becoming somewhat more reasonable, he allowed them to pay half the sum in camels and the other half in either coin or gold or silver jewelry and other objects. They were given from July 21 to August 2 to pay. The punishment of the Yomuts had its desired effect on the other Turcomen bands. At the deadline, some 92,000 rubles had been collected, and as there was evidence of intent to pay, Kaufman allowed an indefinite extension to the payment deadline. To insure full payment, he took 26 hostages from among the families of Turcomen notables." Hinson, The Fall of Khiva.
"In 1873, Karakalpak was annexed by the Russian Empire." Almanach de Bruxelles Karakalpak, Uzbekistan
After the fall of Khiva the Russian army slaughtered Yomut Turkmen tribe in 1873.Ogata Resource Treasure-trove
1879 N. Simakov travels in Central Asia and makes oldest known Illustrations of Turkman carpets. Turkoman Studies I. page 1. - W. 4
1869, the Russians had built a fortress on the Caspian Sea at Krasnovodsk (Turkmen-Bashi).Ogata Resource Treasure-trove
1881 Final Turkmen subjugated by 1881. Spuler, Bertold. The Mongols in History. Page 123 * note. - W. 4
Gen. Michael Skobelev, commander of Krasnovodsk fort transported 11,000 Russian troops to Goktepe on their newly built railway. Goktepe fell to the Russians in 1881. Gen. Michael Skobelev allowed his men to execute 8,000 men women children and even babies. They used bayonets on the babies. Ogata Resource Treasure-trove
1918 In the spring of 1918 the khanate fell into hands of the Yomut chief Junaid Khan.In January 1920 Junaid Khan was overthrown by Soviet troops , who had invaded the khanate assisted by Uzbek and Turkmen opposition to Junaid Khan. Pankratov, Khanate of Khiva 1511-1920
1925 In 1925, Karakalpak became an autonomous republic Almanach de Bruxelles Karakalpak, Uzbekistan
1928 On September2, 1928 King Amanullah convened a Loya Jirgah and ordered European style dress. Afghanistan_Loya_Jirgah_September_2_1928
Southwest Asia Time Line 1167 to 13631167
The birth of Temujin (Cingis Qan) 1167 -1227 (Ghingis Khan).
Yesugei is murdered by the Tatar tribe in 1175. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1174/75: Cengiz Qan (Temujin) becomes betrothed to Borte. His father Yesugei is murdered by the Tatar tribe. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
A young man who would grow up to be Cingis Qan (Ghingis Khan) of the Mongols was aided by the son of the Chieftain of the Arulat clan. (The young man was Bo'orcu. He became one of Cingis Qahan's Dorben Kulu'ud (Great Warriors)) Yuan ch'ao pi-shih, quatrain 90. - W. 4
1182 Cingis Qan (Temujin) marries Borte. Cengiz Qan gains the protection of Toghrul Qan of the Kerait tribe who had been Anda of Yesugei. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1183 Borte wife of Temujin was taken in a Merkit raid in 1183. This led to a tribal war where Temujin with the help of Toghrul, and Temujin's Anda, Jamuqa defeat the Merkit and regain Borte. It is believed that Borte became pregnant with Jochi during her captivity. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1185: "Temujin is elected khan of his clan the Borjigin." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1187: Temujin is defeated in the battle of Dalan Balzhut. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1187-1196 After Dalan Balzhut Temujin may have gone into exile in China. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1196: "Temujin attacks and defeats the Tatar tribe." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1197: Toghrul is given the title Wang-khan by the Chinese. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1199 Bihar (India) was over run by Muhammad Baktiyar. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. . Page 30. - W. 4
Early 13th century
The Tatars were taken into the Mongol IL in the in the early 13th century. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
By 1200 the Oghuz had become sedentary agriculturists. . Krader, Central Asia. Page 84. - W. 4
1201: "Temujin falls out with his Anda Jamuqa because of rivalry. Jamuqa is elected khan by his followers, and is given the title Gur-khan. Jamuqa builds up a coalition against Temujin." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1202: "Temujin breaks with Wang-khan". Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1202: Temujin defeats the Tatars for a second time this time breaking their coalition.* Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1203: The Mongols Coalition under Temujin and defeat the Kerait under Toghrul the Wang-khan who is defeated and killed. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times3
1204: Cingis Qan defeats a Naiman war coalition that includes the Merkits, the Jadirat under Jamuqa, the Dorbet, Katagin, Seljiut and remaining Tatars. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1205: Jamuqa is executed by Temujin. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
Establishment of the Borchalu. Cingis Qan said "Let Bo'orcu govern the ten thousand of the right hand which take the Altai as pillow." Yuan ch'ao pi-shih, quatrain 205. - (W. 5)
1206 Muhammad Ghori was assassinated by a Hindu and his general Qutb u'd-din Aibak became the first Sultan of Delhi. He was originally a Turkoman and a slave. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 30. - (W. 5)
The Delhi Sultanate lasted from 1206 - 1526. The dynasties were the Slave Kings, the Tughlaks, the Sayyids, and the Lodis. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 31. - (W. 5)
1207: The Kirghiz tribe joins the Mongol confederation. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1207: Chingis Khan attacks the Chin (Northern China). Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1209: The Uigher tribe comes into the Mongol confederation. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1211: At the khuriltay at the river Kerulen in 1211 the Mongol agree to invade the Qin (Northern China). Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1214 - 1215:
1214 - 1215: Siege of Peking begins. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1218/1219: "Shah Mohammed of Khwarezm, which was an empire encompassing Afghanistan, present-day Persia, and Turkestan, that is the area between the Aral Sea and the Caspian, secretly ordered the murder of a caravan of Mongol merchants sent by Chingis Khan to the city of Otrar. Chingis Khan responded by sending an envoy, giving Mohammed the choice between handing Otrar's governor Inalchuq over to the Mongols, or accepting war. This envoy was put to death, and war was declared." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1219: Mongols defeat 400,00 man Khwarezm army but fail to capture the Khwarezm Shah. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1220: 1220: Mongols capture Bukhara and Samarkand. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1200 - 1220: "Rabbit Like" Creatures From Persia
1221 After the death of Mutugen at the siege of Bamiyan Cingis Qan ordered the death of all living things and the destruction of the town (1221 my date). Ratchnevsky, Genghis Khan. Page 164. - (W. 5)
1221: Shah Mohammed of Khwarezm dies. Chepe and Subetai made a raid through Russia. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1221: In a quest for the secret of immortality Chingis Khan has the Chinese Taoist monk Changchun brought to his camp near Bamiyan in the Hazarajat (called Afghanistan). Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
The Mongol conquest pushes the Oghus tribes from the Syr Dara region into the Kara Kun area and along the Caspian Sea. Library of Congress: Turkmenistan Formation of the Turkmen Nation March 1996
1224 "The "GOLDEN HORDE" - 1224 - 1502 A.D. Founder - Batur Han, Area - Eastern Europe, the Western Ural Area, the Crimea and the area to the north of the Volga." The 16 Great Turkish Empires
1226 Cingis Qan died as result of injuries from a wild horse battue in the winter of 1226. Ratchnevsky, Genghis Khan. Page 141. - (W. 5)
1229 Ogodai succeeds his father Cingis Qan as Great Qan or Qahan of the Mongols at the Quraltai of 1229. Spuler, Bertold. The Mongols in History. Page 15. - (W. 5)
1237 1237, December 21: "The Mongols took Riazan as the first Russian town. The Russian chronicles give a detailed description of the catastrophe." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1240 to 1480. Muscovy was a tributary of the Golden Horde from 1240 to 1480. Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1240, December 6: "The Mongols captured Kiev, the largest city in Russia". Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1241 1241, December 11: "Ogodai, Chingis Khan's son and first successor, dies in Mongolia. The regency is taken over by his widow Toregene. Toregene was to be the ruler of the Mongol Empire from 1241 to
1243 Seljuk Sultanate of Rum 1205 - 43 Collapsed due to Mongol battering at the battle of Kosedag 1243. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 189. - (W. 3)
1243: "Yeh-lu Chu'tsai, Chingis Khan's forever faithful shaman and foremost spiritual adviser, died." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1243 - The Mongols defeat the Seljuks near Sivas. Georgian and Armenian troops fight as Mongols and 2000 Frankish mercenaries fight as Seljuks. Reinhart Timeline
1246 1246, when her son Guyuk was elected Grand Khan." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1246: Subetai died at the age of 70. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1246: "Guyuk, son of Ogodai and Toregene, was elected as Great Khan." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1248 1248: "Guyuk died. The leadership of the Mongol Empire is taken over by his widow Oghulgamish." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1251 Mangu Khan, Qan of the Mongol Empire (1251 to 1259),
1255 1255: "Batu, the first khan of The Golden Horde, died." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1256 1256: "Hulagu, grandson of Chingis Khan, overcomes the Persian Ismaili's." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1260 September 6th 1260 a Mamluk army under Baibars smashed a smaller Mongol army at Ain Jalut in Galilee. Hulagu rushed to revenge his men but became embroiled in war with the Golden Horde. This stopped the Mongol western advance. Rossabi, Khubilai Khan. Page 55. - (W. 4)
latter part of the 13th century "Golden Horde itself, with its capital at Sarai on the Idil (Volga), dominated the Yayik (Ural)-Idil area, Muscovy, Kievan Rus and the Crimea from its rise in the latter part of the 13th century until the decisive defeat of the Horde under Toktamysh by Timur in the 1490s." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1261 Members of a Tamma of Golden Horde warriors ended up in Afghanistan about 1261 and are known to us as Qaraunus or Nicudari. (They were unable to return to the Horde because of war with the Il-Khanids) Morgan, The Mongols. Page 95. - (W. 3)
1264 1264: "Kubilai finally defeats Ariq-boeke, his rival for the throne of Grand Khan." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1270 "The Latin word "Tartarus," meaning "the infernal regions of Roman and Greek mythology, hence Hell" had already been borrowed into Christian theology by the clergy of Europe. Possibly St. Louis of France was the first, in 1270, to apply this unrelated term to the troops of Chinggis. By the 14th century, this erroneous usage was also extended to the homelands of the Tatars. Consequently that area later known as Central Asia, or Turkistan, was referenced by the European cartographers and authors, including Chaucer, as "Tartary," Tartares," or "Independent Tartary."" Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1271 Marco Polo encountered the Qaraunus or Nicudari in 1271. Morgan, The Mongols. Page 95. - (W. 3)
1274 1274:" Kubilai sends a fleet of 150 boats against Japan, but is beaten back." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1279 1279: "The Sung was conclusively subjugated, and the whole of China is won and the Mongol Yuan dynasty, lasting until 1368, is established." Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1281 Osman I Founds the Ottoman Empire Reigned 1281 to c. 1326. - (W. 3)
1281: Kubilai sends another, larger expedition with more than 160 000 warriors to Japan, but this also meets failure, and a typhoon seals its doom. This unfortunate event causes the barbaric Japanese to be isolated on their islands setting off a course of events that results in the Necessity of the atom bomb blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times1281: Kubilai sends another, larger expedition with more than 160 000 warriors to Japan, but this also meets failure, and a typhoon seals its doom. This unfortunate event causes the barbaric Japanese to be isolated on their islands setting off a course of events that results in the Necessity of the atom bomb blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Mongol history and chronology from ancient times
1294 Ghazan Khan converts to Islam converting the IL Khanids with him. - (W. 3)
1301 Ottoman Sultan Osman I victorious at Baphaeon. - (W. 3)
1313 Golden Horde Khan Uzbek 1282-1342 converts to Islam. - (W. 3)
1326 1326 Ottoman Sultan Orhan became Ottoman Sultan. - (W. 3)
Khan Tarmashirin of the Chagatai horde converts to Islam. 1326
1336 The IL-Khanid dynasty in Iran breaks up after the death of Abu Said in 1335. - (W. 3)
The birth of Timur in Kesh (Shahr-i-Sabz). - (W. 3)
1346-63 Tughlug Timur becomes the last independent Chagatai Khan in Transoxiana. - (W. 3)
1347 In 1347 an Afghan leader Hasan Gangu Bahmani established Deccan as an independent kingdom with his capitol at Gulbarga. Rawlinson, INDIAN ART. Page 35. - (W. 3)
1351-1380 Under Bayram Khôja the Qara Qoyunlu were part of the Jalayirid IL. - (W. 3)
1362 Ottoman Sultan Orhan dies. - (W. 3)
Murad I became Ottoman Sultan. - (W. 3)
1363 Timur expels Khan Tughlug Timur and sets up a puppet Cingissid Khan. - (W. 3)
1398/99 From 1398 to 1399 Timur invaded the Delhi Sultanate and sacked Delhi. - (W. 3)
Southwest Asia Time Line 750 to 1167751 AD "Chinese power in Central Asia was decisively crushed by the Arabs in 751 at the Battle of Talas, northeast of Tashkent." Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
prior to the 9 -10th century "The Khazar ruling class seem to have embraced Judaism sometime prior to the 9-10th century." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
Circa 850 AD Circa 850 - Uighurs, pushed from Mongolia by the Kirghiz establish their Ulus in the Tarim Basin. This lasted until the Uighurs were conquered and assimilated into the Mongol IL in the early 13th century. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
932-1212_A.D, "The "KARAHAN" - 932 - 1212 A.D, Founder - Saltuk Bugra Han, Area - All the Trans-Oxus area including the area between the Issyk and Balkash Lakes". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
934 AD "Uighurs adopted Islam under Abdulkerim Satuk Bughra Khan, the ruler of Kashgar, who became a Muslim in 934." Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
962 - 1183 A.D, "The "GAZNELI EMPIRE" - 962 - 1183 A.D, Founder - Alptekin, Area - The area from the Trans-Oxus to the Ganges River, and from the shores of the Caspian to the steppes of the Pamir. (Total Area - 4,700,000 Km 2)". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
10th century First mention of Turkmen (al Turk-maniyun) by Makdisi in the 10th century. He used the term to refer to the Oguz and the Karluks. The Oguz were located near Isfijab in the mid Syr Darya region. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57. - W. 4
The Oguz adopted Islam in the 10th century under a leader named Seljuk. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57. - W. 4
Early 11th century Early 11th century first Turkic incursions in Armenia. Wagstaff Landscapes Page 184. - W. 4
1040-1157_A.D, "The "SELCUK EMPIRE" - 1040 - 1157 A.D, Founder - Seljuk, Area - At the East, Balkash and Issyk Lakes and the Tarim Derya; At the West, Aegean and the Mediterranean shores; At the North, Aral Lake, Caspian Sea, Caucasian and the Black Sea; At the South, the area including Arabia and the sea Omman. (Total Area - 10,000,000 Km 2)". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
11th century Mahmud al-Kashgari refers to Oguz and Karluks as Turkmen in the 11th century. Krader, Central Asia. Page 57. - W. 5
Turkmen began to be used to mean Oguz exclusively in the 11 century by Gardizi and Baihaqi. Krader, Central Asia. Page 58. - W. 4
"During the 11th century, Kashgarli Mahmut, the author of Compendium of Turkic Dialects , noted that Tatars were living around Otuken, next to the Uyghurs." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
1077 - 1231 A.D "The "HARZEMSHAH" - 1077 - 1231 A.D, Founder - Kudrettin Mehmet (Harzemshah), Area - Persia, Southern Caucasia, Dagistan, Afghanistan and most of Central Asia. (Total Area - 5,000,000 Km 2)". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
Southwest Asia Time Line Before 750 ADLate third century B.C.
The Chinese drove the Hsiung-nu across the Yellow river and through the Gobi desert.
204_B.C- 216 A.D,
"The "GREAT HUN EMPIRE" - 204 B.C - 216 A.D, Founder - Mete (Bagatir), Area - At the north, Siberia; soshmir; east, Pacific Ocean; west, Caspian Sea; (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)" The 16 Great Turkish Empires
Xiong-nu a Central Asian uth, Tibet - Katribal confederation seizes contol in Central Asia since about 200 BC. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
Early 2nd century B.C. the Yüeh-chih move out of the Tarim Basin into Greek Bactria
70 BC - 44 BC
Yüeh-chih drove the Hsiung-nu from the Oxus valley between 70 BC - 44 BC
Mid 1st century
The Eastern Han Dynasty A.D. 25-220 conquered all the way to the Caspian Sea and defeated the Yüeh-chih. 1st century
Late 1st century
Late 1st century The Eastern Han Dynasty A.D. 25-220 drive the Hsiung-nu back into the Altai Mountains and into the Steppes.
420 - 552 A.D
The "WHITE HUN EMPIRE" - 420 - 552 A.D, Founder - Aksuvar (Aksungur), Area - Half of northern India, Afghanistan, parts of Turkistan (Total Area - 3,500,000 Km 2)". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
552 - 743 A.D
"The "GOKTURK EMPIRE" - 552 - 743 A.D, Founder - Bumin Khan (Tumen), Area - The inacessible valleys of the Altay Mountains (Ergenikon) (Total Area - 18,000,000 Km 2)". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
562 - 796 A.D
"The "AVAR EMPIRE" - 562 - 796 A.D, Founder - Bayar Khan, Area - The area between the Volga, Hungary and Bessarabia". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
"The "HAZAR EMPIRE" - 602 - 1016 A.D, Founder - There are no historical data as to the original founder, however, its greatest ruler was Hakan Yusuf., Area - The Hazars who are believed to be an offshoot of the Gokturks migrated to the West and formed a state stretching from the Caucasian Mntns to the Danube and to the middle of and Southern Russia.". The 16 Great Turkish Empires
630 - 640
Between 630 and 640 the Tang Chinese under emperor Li Shi-min, captured the cities of Kucha, Khotan, Kashgar, Yarkand, and Turfan in what is today Xinjiang province of Red China. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
After regaining her strength, China, now ruled by the Tang dynasty (618-906), once again moved west between 630 and 640 and penetrating as far west as Bukhara and Samarkand in 659. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
Mongolia, came under the control of the Turks again in 683. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
Mongolia, came under the control of the Uighurs in 745. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
751 AD 751 AD: Battle of Talas: The Tang Chinese were defeated by the Moslem Arabs at the battle of the Talas River northeast of Tashkent. It was at this battle that Chinese papermakers were captured by the Arabs and paper making spread west.
755-763: 755-763: Rebellion of An Lu-shan
Imperial expansion extended until 751 AD when the Chinese lost to Arab Moslems at the Battle of Talas. This was a crucial battle because it caused the Chinese to pull back. The loss of the outermost provinces weakened the Tang emperor Xuanzong. This brought on the rebellion of An Lushan which brought the Chinese borders back to the Great Wall and caused a gradual decline of Imperial power that lasted for 150 years.
______________ Mongolia, came under the control of Kyrgyz in 840. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
Arab general Qutaiba ibn Muslim had crosses the Amu Darya (Oxus River) in 711, and captures Bukhara. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
683_AD The Arab general Qutaiba ibn Muslim captured Samarkand in 711. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
early 8th century AD "The word Tatar appears in the Kultigin tablets, which were erected in early 8th century AD and are located close to the Orkhon river near the Mongolian border. These tablets were variously discovered. re-discovered and finally deciphered between the 18th and 20th centuries. According to the inscriptions, Tatars were one of the tribes living in the vicinity of the Altai range of Eastern Asia." Paksoy, Crimean Tatars
713 AD '"Arab armies penetrated into Xinjiang and sacked Kashgar" in 713. Dickens, Soviets in Xinjiang
740 - 1335 A.D "The "UYGUR EMPIRE" - 740 - 1335 A.D, Founder - Kutlug Bilgekul Khan, Area - Central Asia and Northern Mongolia.". The 16 Great Turkish Empires